Who discovered carbon dating
Carbon is also the key ingredient for most life on Earth; the pigment that made the first tattoos; and the basis for technological marvels such as graphene, which is a material stronger than steel and more flexible than rubber.[See Periodic Table of the Elements] Carbon occurs naturally as carbon-12, which makes up almost 99 percent of the carbon in the universe; carbon-13, which makes up about 1 percent; and carbon-14, which makes up a minuscule amount of overall carbon but is very important in dating organic objects.Chemists conceive of these distances as shells, and define the properties of atoms by what is in each shell, according to the University of California, Davis.Carbon has two electron shells, with the first holding two electrons and the second holding four out of a possible eight spaces. It was while working in the Kent Laboratory building in the 1940s that researchers developed radiocarbon dating—an innovative method to measure the age of organic materials. The Earth's magnetic field experiences reversals such that north becomes south. Researchers have dated volcanic ash that was formed immediately before ... The precise dating of ancient charcoal found near a skull is helping reveal a unique period in prehistory.The end result: Atoms with six protons and six neutrons — carbon.While scientists sometimes conceptualize electrons spinning around an atom's nucleus in a defined shell, they actually fly around the nucleus at various distances; this view of the carbon atom can be seen here in two electron cloud figures (bottom), showing the electrons in a single blob (the so-called s-orbital) and in a two-lobed blob or cloud (the p-orbital). It can link to itself, forming long, resilient chains called polymers.
This method works on once-living organisms, including objects made of wood or other plant material.(It can also bond stably to fewer atoms by forming double and triple bonds.) In other words, carbon has options.And it uses them: Nearly 10 million carbon compounds have been discovered, and scientists estimate that carbon is the keystone for 95 percent of known compounds, according to the website Chemistry Explained.Each helium nucleus has two protons and two neutrons.Under very hot temperatures — greater than 100,000,000 Kelvin (179,999,540.6 F) — the helium nuclei begin to fuse, first as pairs into unstable 4-proton beryllium nuclei, and eventually, as enough beryllium nuclei blink into existence, into a beryllium plus a helium.